Tuesday, November 26, 2019
Ridicule essays Jeans of Rousseaus criticisms of society and its citizens are demonstrated in the movie Ridicule. Ridicule is defined as to make fun of, implying a deliberate often malicious belittling (Merriam-Websters Collegiate Dictionary). Rousseaus critique was not merely an attempt to make society and its individuals objects of laughter, but to encourage, like other thinkers, progress of civilization through the improvement and ultimate transformation of society (Levack et al. 565). Rousseau was an atypical thinker who tries to grasp an emotional and passionate side of man. Contrary to Rousseaus emotionalism, the character of Mathilde is a single-minded individual and unaware of her emotions. Mathildes primary concern is her study of science. Her interest in science and nature overshadows and, eventually, removes any of her feelings of love. She agrees to marry a rich, old noble, Monsieur Montalieri, so she can use the income from the marriage to finance her scientific experiments. In Rousseaus The Social Contract, emphasis is placed on citizens recognizing a general will, which represents the common good or public interest. All of society should participate and commit to the general good, even if that means putting personal and private interests aside (Levack et al. 571). The character of the aristocrat Ponceludon demonstrates Rousseaus idea of the general will. Ponceludon travels to the court at Versailles hoping that King Louis XVI will provide financial aid for his drainage project of the swamps near his home. He wants to get rid of mosquitoes, reduce disease and death, and help the peasants who work for him have a better life. He goes to the court to see th...
Posted by Aurora Devries at 3:32 PM
Friday, November 22, 2019
10 Hobbies That Look Great On Your Resume The going advice mightÃ tell you to leave your hobbies off your resume- there isnÃ¢â¬â¢t enough space and potential recruiters are most eager to see your skills and experience. But there are a few situations in which adding a few of your hobbies to your resume can actually add value to your candidacy and help you stand out from the crowd. You can and should include any hobby that has some bearing on your proposed job duties, or something that would endear you to a more creative company like Google. Just remember: if you put it on your resume, itÃ¢â¬â¢s fair game in the interview.Here are a few hobbies that might actually make things easier for you to land a job.1. YogaBelieve it or not, a dedication to yoga shows a commitment to staying calm and in control. The ability to breathe through tough moments will look like an asset in a fast-paced, high-energy environment. Shows you can handle pressure.2. Extreme AdventureIf your bosses to be are impressed by risk and pushing boundari es without losing your cool, listing extreme adventure sports on your resume can show you have these valuable traits- which might just land you a leadership role.3. Video ProductionDitto any kind of design, especially if youÃ¢â¬â¢re going for a gig in production or event planning. Who knows when you might be asked to livestream or broadcast content in the course of a job?4. Endurance SportsThese show dedication, perseverance, and grit. Who doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t think these qualities are appealing in a potential hire? Particularly in sales or business roles.5. Creative HobbiesYou like to cook or paint or take photographs, or do any sort of design, you might be in a better position to list these on your resume and appeal to jobs that are not just looking for hard skills, but a little creative je ne sais quoi. 6. Team SportsShow you can be part of a team- especially if your team experience is leaner in the work sphere and you are applying for a team-based job.7. WritingA bit of creative wri ting can both showcase your creative side, but also show your strengths as a writer or editor- both incredibly useful skills in communication for almost any job. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a highly sought after skill that most people are just not that great at. Show your stuff!8. Community InvolvementBeing active in your community or volunteering suggests that you are caring, service-oriented, and comfortable with collaboration. You might even show yourself as perfect for a managerial role without even trying too hard.9. BloggingAs long as your blog is professional looking and not too salacious in content, an interest in blogging can be a real asset. Bonus points if your blog matches your online presence/personal brand and if the content is current, well-written, and free of mistakes.10. Playing an InstrumentPlaying an instrument takes talent, yes, but also determination and dogged practice. Show youÃ¢â¬â¢re willing to put in the time and commitment to improve, and your future boss just might be lieve you.That being said, while your hobbies are important, itÃ¢â¬â¢s also important to build the functional aspects of your resume because that is what will ultimately determine whether or not you get your foot in the door.And one way to make sure your resume is top notch is by keeping up with certain resume trends. If you can keep up with trends, you will be able to keep your resume updated and efficient.
Posted by Aurora Devries at 10:55 PM
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Diffie-Hellman key exchange protocol - Essay Example nowledge of each other to effectively establish a joint, shared secret key over an insecure public communication channel (Blake and Garefalakis, 2004, p.27). Although diffie-Hellman Key Exchange is a non-authenticated (anonymous) key agreement protocol, it provides a basis for a diverse variety of authenticated protocols and has widely been used to provide important forward secrecy particularly in transport layer securityÃ¢â¬â¢s ephemeral. This paper critically reviews diffie-Hellman Key Exchange protocol with particular focus to some of the common attacks on the protocol, potential counter-measures to mitigate or address such attacks as well as a calculation of the value of the symmetric key as well as the value of R1 and R2 in the diffie-Hellman protocol for the given set of values. i. Denial of Service Attacks: These are the attacks against Diffie-Hellman Protocol whereby the attacker attempts to stop Alice and Bob from carrying out the protocol successfully. This can particularly be accomplished by attackers through a number of ways some of which include deleting the messages sent by Alice and Bob to each other or even by overwhelming the communicating parties with unnecessary communication or computation. ii. Outsider Attacks: Outsider attacks is a malicious attack in which the attackers may try disrupt the protocol by removing, adding or replaying the messages in order to retrieve some vital information that they may have otherwise not gotten just by looking at the public values. iii. Insider Attacks: This is where one of the participants in a Diffie-Hellman Protocol intentionally creates a breakable protocol in an attempt to gain knowledge of the secret key of his/her communication peer on the other side ( Kaufman, Perlman and Speciner, 2002, p.95). There are currently a number of countermeasures that can effectively be applied and implemented in order to mitigate, avoid or address the various common attacks on Diffie-Hellman Protocol. For example, to
Posted by Aurora Devries at 3:39 AM
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Social problems - Coursework Example On the other hand, the subjective element of social problems refers to the belief that a certain social condition is harmful to the society, or to a section of the society and it can be changed. Problems such as drug addiction, poverty, crime and pollution do exist. These conditions are not considered as social problems but they can cause a lot of destruction is a society (Eitzen and Zinn 2). What is the difference between norm violations and social conditions as types of social problems? Which is a person blame and which a systems blame approach? Why doe the authors of this book believe the focus should be on social conditions (system blame) rather than norm violations (person blame)? Do you agree with them? Why or why not? As social problems, norm violations tend to assume that there is a standard behavior. People studying norm violations are normally interested in failures in the society criminals, the school dropouts, and the mental ill. On the other hand, norm violations are symptoms of social problems and not the problem itself. For example, deviants are victims who need to entirely carry the blame. The second type of social problems involves conditions that tend to cause material and psychic suffering for some people. In addition, there is the person-blame approach which is the approach of understanding peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s social problems. In this approach, those who deviate are considered as the source of trouble. The authors of this book believe that the focus should be on system blame and not person blame since blaming an individual gives the government a chance to take control of dissidents more easily. In most cases, deviants are normally sent to hospitals or prisons for rehabilitation. It is th erefore right for the authors to base on system blame (Eitzen and Zinn 4). Welfare state capitalism is a type of capitalism is a type of capitalism that has
Posted by Aurora Devries at 1:45 PM
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Internal combustion engine Essay There is a big debate about the future of the auto industry. The new big topic is electric cars. Ads emphasize how much less pollution these cars put out, but the truth is that many people do not realize the downside of these cars. For instance, did you know that average battery cost for electric cars is between $18,000 and $20,000? Also, these cars produce significant more amounts of sulfur dioxide compared to traditional internal combustion engines, and what about the factories that burn billions of tons of coal everyday to produce electricity to charge these cars? Yes, these cars do produce little carbon dioxide directly, but the main source of pollution comes indirectly from the power plants that power these cars. Electric cars are not the best environmental solution in the long run because they still cause pollution while charging and producing them, there is no safe place to dispose of the batteries, and they are extremely expensive (Hogan). The first major issue with electric cars is that the process of manufacturing and charging these cars produces billions of tons of carbon dioxide emissions. The EPAÃ¢â¬â¢s research shows that for an average size car, electricityÃ¢â¬â¢s emissions are about three times higher than the emissions of gasoline (Inside Climate Staff). Electric cars do not produce much pollution directly. Instead the pollution is rather created at the source of the energy, power plants. Pollution is caused when manufacturing and producing these cars too. In addition, large amounts of pollution are produced while mining for the metals found in the new types of batteries. All of the mining machines and vehicles are powered from fossil fuels such as coal, gasoline, and diesel fuels. A great amount of energy is lost in the process of transmitting the electricity from the power source to your car. Also, electric cars emit significantly higher amounts of sulfur dioxide into the air compared to internal-combustion engines. Sulfur dioxide is the main component that causes acid rain. Acid rain can cause damage to lakes, streams, forests, car paints, copper, stone, and other building materials. Acid rain soaks into the soil and roots of plants, and causes slowed growth, and loss of leaves or needles. In the Great Smoky Mountains, acid rain has actually killed one-hundred or more of the Frazier Fir and Red Spruce trees (U. S. Environmental Protection Agency). Furthermore, in the Northeastern United States. , such as in the Kesterson Reservoir in the San Joaquin Valley, acid rain caused hundreds of fish populations to vanish from lakes (Davis). Acid rain can contaminate our own drinking water without us even knowing it; it tastes, and looks like regular water! When sulfur dioxide is inhaled, it can cause damage to your heart and lungs, causing disorders such as bronchitis and asthma (National Parks Service). Additionally, battery disposal is a key issue. The average life of this new type of batteries is twenty-five to thirty thousand miles before they will have to be replaced. If electric cars are going to be a thing of the future, there will become an excess of batteries in landfills and other disposal sites. Presently, landfills are not designed to handle the millions of batteries that would need to be disposed of if millions of people were driving electric cars. If these batteries are not properly disposed of, toxic chemicals could leak into the environment. Also, recycling these lithium-ion batteries doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t appear to be in the future anywhere soon. The cost of collecting, organizing, and shipping these metals to a recycler far outweighs the value of the scrapped material, so for the time being, most of these metals will be thrown away in landfills and junkyards (Mitchell). Another obstacle with these materials being tossed in landfills is the possibility of corrosive chemicals leaking into streams, rivers, and lakes. The process of refining metals for these batteries also releases pollutants into the environment. Once the refiner gets what metal they need from the ore, they discard the other materials into the nearby ecosystems. When this happens, our drinking water could be contaminated, and it could also damage, or kill the wildlife in that area (Bacher). Lastly, these cars are extremely expensive. Because the batteries only last for about a hundred miles, this means you would have to charge them about three times for every full tank of gas that you would normally buy. Also, with this low charge capacity, it would be virtually impossible to take long trips. You would have to stop frequently to charge the battery, which takes about nine hours to completely charge. This would turn a normal two-hundred mile, four hour drive into at least a thirteen hour trip, assuming that you could find an open charging station! Another reason that these cars are so expensive is that you have to replace the battery in your car about every twenty-five to thirty thousand miles. This is a very costly expense, especially since each new battery is about eighteen to twenty thousand dollars! This is $80,000 for batteries alone if you drive 100,000 miles in your car! The price of charging an electric car is less than what a full tank of gas would cost you, but you end up paying for it in the long run when you have to replace the battery. Electric cars are expensive from the start. The average retail price of most electric cars is in the thirty to forty thousand dollar range. Most middle class individuals cannot afford to pay this price for this new technology, which is why this will not be the best economical solution in the long run. These cost projections assume that both the car and the battery work correctly for the duration of their lives, but what if the battery breaks, or stops working, forcing you to replace it? The technology is new and underdeveloped, which means that there might still be some problems or Ã¢â¬Å"bugsÃ¢â¬ that the designers havenÃ¢â¬â¢t had a chance to fix. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s $20,000 right there that you would have to pay in addition to the purchase price. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s close to half of what you originally paid for the car! Since these cars are less, there are fewer mechanics that are qualified to work or operate on them, so the price of operation will be very high. Electric cars were released around 2010, which means there hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t even been enough time for a mechanic to get a four-year degree in operating on electric cars (Hogan). The problem with automobile pollution definitely needs to be addressed and solved, but fully-electric cars are not the best solution. They are made out to be better than they actually are, and they definitely have major disadvantages. First of all, they will have to become a lot cheaper for people to be able to afford them. The general public cannot afford to pay $20,000 for a new battery every 30,000 miles. Designers also need to find a way to lengthen the range of these cars. With only a 100 mile range, it is just not practical for most people. In addition, these cars still produce pollution, just not directly. All of the pollution is created indirectly, at coal-burning electricity power plants. Another unaddressed issue is that these cars emit large amounts of sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere, which is what combines with water to become acid rain. Lastly, there is no good place to dispose of batteries. If millions of people are going to be driving these cars, there will be tons of toxic batteries in landfills and disposal sites, which can cause harm to the wildlife, and the surrounding environment. If you accidentally miscalculate the charge left in your car, you will be stuck. Unlike a gas-powered vehicle, you cannot simply fill up your car with a gas can. With electric cars, there is no way to replenish the energy in your car on the side of the road. The fully-electric car was a good idea, but in the long run, it is not the best answer. The automobile companies need to continue to improve internal combustion engines to decrease their carbon dioxide emissions. Works Cited Cultrona, R. L. Pros and Cons of Electric Cars. 1999-2012. 18 March 2012. . Davis, Jay. Marine Bio. 1998-2012. 18 March 2012. . Hogan, Micheal C. The Encyclopedia of Earth. 21 February 2012. 18 March 2012. . Mitchell, Robert L. Computer World. 22 August 2006. 18 March 2012. . National Parks Service. 28 October 2010. 18 March 2012 . Staff, Solve Climate. Inside Climate News. 1 April 2010. 18 March 2012. . U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. 8 June 2007. 18 March 2012. .
Posted by Aurora Devries at 2:17 AM
Thursday, November 14, 2019
3 Areas of Exploration Hot-Seating ----------- Hot-Seating is where the audience asks you questions about your character. This technique is important in drama because it really makes you concentrate on the character that you are playing. You have to know your characters background & what type of person he/she is. Which in turn helps move your work forward, because you know more about your character Thought Tracking ---------------- Thought Tracking is where your character speaks his/her thoughts to the audience. This technique is important in drama because it reveals what a character is thinking without other characters, in the piece, knowing. For example: Luke: Are you coming out later? Steve: ok then. (Aside) Though I suppose IÃ¢â¬â¢ll be paying again. (To Luke) See you at 7. Forum-theatre ------------- Forum theatre is where a scene is enacted & watched by the rest of the group & at any point in the drama any actor/actress can stop the scene to ask to make a suggestion or can join in by suggesting a new role or take over an existing role. This technique is important in drama because it helps get ideas & move your scene forward. Midsummer nights dream Vs Staying Lost Introduction ------------ These two plays are different in every way. On one hand weÃ¢â¬â¢ve got a romantic comedy, midsummer nights dream, which deals with four lovers & fairies & on the other weÃ¢â¬â¢ve got a serious piece, staying lost, which deals with lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s issues. Similarities Both of the pieces had 3 different parts which came together at the end i.e. the teenage pregnancy, the unwanted child the rape story. Then at the end the 3 parts came together in a very effective scene where the victims behind a big gate & the other people were on the other side. The 3 parts in midsummer nights dream also came together at the end i.e. the lovers story, the fairies story & the workers story. Then at the end we all came together in a scene where the workers put on a play for the visitors. Another similarity is that we both pieces used thought tracking i.e. In staying lost in the pregnancy story when Carly was sitting on the stairs
Posted by Aurora Devries at 2:49 PM
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
The movie Ã¢â¬Å"Forgetting Sarah MarshallÃ¢â¬ is a successful example of comedy. It was theoretical released on April 18, 2008. The film was brought together by a group of well acted performers and was very famous for perfectly combining the hilarious performances and the laughter together. I think that a successful comedy movie has to have these important factors. First, it needs to be performed with the perfect sounds elements such as the background music and the songs in the movie; second, the movie should be brought by some famous figures and directors, which were well-known in the comedy industry to make sure it will have a great hit this time; third, there should be a lot of stupid scenes with nonsense in the movie that will make people laugh their heads off. The movie Ã¢â¬Å"Forgetting Sarah MarshallÃ¢â¬ won the Golden Trailer Award for Wild Posts in the year 2008 and was nominated for 6 different awards such as the Golden Trailer Award Best Comedy, and Teen Choice Comedy Awards. The film is directed by the famous Nicholas Stoller and was written by Jason Segal. The movie was a successful hit and was well know among the teenÃ¢â¬â¢s group as well as the adults group. The main character of the movie; Peter, he had the most perfect life that all man wished for; which is dating the most famous and the sexiest TV star of the show Crime Scene, Scene of the Crime. But an awful break up which was brought up by now his ex-girl friend, TV star Sarah Marshall; Peter felt like he needs to get away from his life and forget everything about Sarah, so he decided to go to Hawaii for a vacation. The problem is PeterÃ¢â¬â¢s ex-girl friend is also on a trip to Hawaii with his new boyfriend; Snow. Peter had to learn to forget the past, stop being a baby, and finally become a man. In the movie, Peter is a sound effect editor for his ex-girlfriendÃ¢â¬â¢s TV show; Crime Scene, Scene of the Crime, he was suppose to do dark and ominous music for the background, after he broke up with Sarah, he was playing lively music for the show, which was a perfect part with sarcastic and dark humor in it. The movie cleverly blends together his act with his music talents. Such as the Dracula puppet song that he sang in front of a crowd of strangers that has no idea what he is doing, as soon as he is finished with the Dracula song; the awkward situation that everyone was in total silence was amusing and made the audience want to laugh without a reason. When Sarah MarshallÃ¢â¬â¢s new boy friend went on stage and sang her the song Ã¢â¬Å"Inside YouÃ¢â¬ , with the ridicules body movements that he did with the song, the audiences are usually stunned at first, but as we watch it further, it definitely leads to full of laughter. A powerful comedy should be brought together by a group of well known figures in the comedy industry. Ã¢â¬Å"Forgetting Sarah MarshallÃ¢â¬ is a perfect example of a good comedy because it was produced by four producers, which they were all very famous for being in the comedy business for so long. The exclusive producer Richard Vane was also the producer of Last Holiday (2004), Rodney Rothman who was also the producer for Help Me Help You (2006), and Judd Apatow who was the actor in Pineapple Express (2008). Most importantly, Producer Shauna Robertson. She was the producer for many previous comedy great hits; such as the Pineapple Express (2008), Knocked Up (2007), The 40-Year-Old Virgin (2005) and Meet the Parents (2000). Jason Segal which was the writer of the film was also the leading actor of the movie. Actress Kristen Bell from the famous TV show Gossip Girl also took part in the movie, as well as Mila Kunis who was the sound for Meg Griffin for Family Guy and Bill Hader from Knocked up. With this impressive group of producers and performers, people will surge into the movie theater as soon as the film is released in the theaters. The most important element for a comedy is it has to have some scene that came out of nowhere and was totally stupid with nonsense. It is very important for a comedy, because people usually watch comedies when they donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to think about things and just want to enjoy the movie; otherwise there is no point of watching it. Ã¢â¬Å"Forgetting Sarah MarshallÃ¢â¬ is a perfect example because it is filled with nonsense. After breaking up with Sarah, Peter Felt like that he needs to have sex with different women just because his ex-girlfriend is having sex with another guy. After having a one night stand with a women that he barely even known, Peter cried in front of her and was acting totally out of ordinary. Also when the chief invite him to go and prepare dinner with him, they end up chasing a pig and Peter had to kill the pig with his bare hands. Scene in the movie shows much different nonsense that will usually make people laugh from their heart. The movie was loved widely all over the world, but there are still a lot of people who didnÃ¢â¬â¢t like the movie Ã¢â¬Å"Forgetting Sarah MarshallÃ¢â¬ . A lot of professionalsÃ¢â¬â¢ movie critics didnÃ¢â¬â¢t like the movie because they think that the contents are Ã¢â¬Å"totally forgettableÃ¢â¬ or they think that Ã¢â¬Å"it is hard to like a character in the movie, when his own movie makes fun of himself. Ã¢â¬ I disagree with these critics, because there are many scenes in movie that people will not forget after that watched it, and a comedy are usually funny because the main characters were made fun of, either by himself or the other characters in the movie. That is what usually makes a movie a great hit of comedies. Just like what I previously mentioned, Ã¢â¬Å"forgetting Sarah MarshallÃ¢â¬ includes the perfect factors of sound element, was performed and brought together by a power group of people in the comedy industries, it also includes many stupid senses that people will not forget and will be talking about it among everyone who have watched the movie. This film is a great example of a comedy, and it is only for you to watch it and find out for yourself.
Posted by Aurora Devries at 3:21 AM
Saturday, November 9, 2019
THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN NATURAL LAW AND LEGAL POSITIVISM This essay is going to discuss and analyse the differences between two basic principles- natural law and legal positivism. According to Hume, there are two realms of human enquiry , one in the field of facts which is concerned with what Ã¢â¬Ë is Ã¢â¬Ë actually the case and the other in the field of Ã¢â¬ËoughtÃ¢â¬â¢ that is, what ought to be the case1.Those who believe in the principle of natural law are known as naturalists while those who believe in the principle of legal positivism or Ã¢â¬Ëpositive lawÃ¢â¬â¢ are known as positivists. This is a brief overview of the two principles of natural law and legal positivism. Natural Law Natural Law started with the ancient Greeks and suggested that there was a higher power in control of human existence. Natural law deals with the combination of law and morals and is sourced from religion, culture and reason. It is the means by which human beings can rationally guide themsel ves to their good and it is based on the structure of reality itself.All human beings possess a basic knowledge of the principles of natural law. Naturalists believe Ã¢â¬Ë an unjust law is not a lawÃ¢â¬â¢. Doherty said Ã¢â¬ËOne of the classical theories of natural law is that there are certain principles of human conduct, awaiting discovery by human reason, with which man-made laws must conform if it is to be validÃ¢â¬â¢2 Natural law is what Ã¢â¬ËoughtÃ¢â¬â¢ to be. Some natural law thinkers were Hobbes, Locke, Finnis, Fuller and Aquinas. Aquinas set the pattern of modern natural law thinking. He divided law into four categories-eternal law, divine law, natural law and human law.The first precept of the natural law, according to Aquinas, is the imperative to do good and avoid evil. Ã¢â¬ËAquinas believed that human laws that do not correspond to the natural law are corruptions of law. These are human laws that lack the character of law that binds moral conscienceÃ¢â¬â¢ 3 The term Ã¢â¬Ënatural lawÃ¢â¬â¢is ambiguous in that it refers to a type of moral theory as well as a legal theory. 1 2 Dennis Lloyd The Idea Of Law(1964)p. 80 Michael Doherty Jurispudence:The Philosophy Of Law(Third Edition)(2004)p. 132 3 Ibid p. 151 UP:05/11/2012-03:15:35 WM:05/11/2012-03:15:38 M:IA120-3-FY A:12a1 R:1204531 C:78D1638A2748CDB50B5907EB2217613C84694D9BLegal Positivism Legal positivism has to do with the seperation of laws and morals. Ã¢â¬ËLegal positivism is a philosophy of law that emphasizes the conventional nature of law-that it is socially constructed. According to legal positivism, Ã¢â¬Ëlaw is synonymous with positive norms, that is, norms made by the legislator or considered as common law or case lawÃ¢â¬â¢4 Some positivists were Bentham, Austin, Hart and Kelsen and they all had different theories. Bentham- utility, Austin- commands, Hart- rules, Kelsen- norms. Legal positivism is of the view that morality is irrelevant to the identification of what is valid law.Bentham referred to natural law is Ã¢â¬Ënonsense on stiltsÃ¢â¬â¢. He said the test of good or evil in an act is its utility and that the Ã¢â¬Ëgreatest happiness of the greatest numberÃ¢â¬â¢ is the social test of what is moral conduct. AustinÃ¢â¬â¢s particular theory of law is often called the Ã¢â¬Ëcommand theoryÃ¢â¬â¢ The three basic points of AustinÃ¢â¬â¢s theory were- the law is a command issued by the uncommanded commander , the commands are backed by threats and a sovereign is one who is habitually obeyed. Kelsen was of the view that the only law is positive law, that which is the product of the will of the people, there are no natural laws therefore.Positivists believe that law is linked with the sovereignty. Ã¢â¬ËAccording to Bentham and Austin, law is a phenomenon of large societies with a sovereign: a determinate person or group who have supreme and absolute de facto power Ã¢â¬âthey are obeyed by all or most others but do not themselves simi larly obey anyone elseÃ¢â¬â¢5 Positivists say Ã¢â¬ËoughtÃ¢â¬â¢ is important but should be seperate and one should avoid trying to derive an ought from an is. Natural lawyers believe that law is necessarily connected to morality, whereas legal positivists deny that. This is the major difference between positivist and natural law thinkers.Natural law is the combination of laws and morals while legal positivism is the seperation of laws and morals. Legal positivism declares that morality is irrelevant to the identification of what is valid law and that the criteria for the validity of a legal rule or law in a society is that it has the warrant of the sovereign and will be enforced by the sovereign and its agents. Raz, a positivist, stated that Ã¢â¬Ëthe validity of a law can never depend on its moralityÃ¢â¬â¢ 6 Positive law or positivism is 4 5 www. iep. utm. edu/legalpos/ [April 17 2001][accessed 4th November 2012] Plato. tandford. edu/entries/legal-positivism/ [accesse d 4th November 2012] 6 Joseph Raz The Authority Of Law: Essays On Law And Morality(1979)p. 47 UP:05/11/2012-03:15:35 WM:05/11/2012-03:15:38 M:IA120-3-FY A:12a1 R:1204531 C:78D1638A2748CDB50B5907EB2217613C84694D9B different from natural law because Ã¢â¬Ë it calls for a certain measure of regularity of observance for without this feature, it would hardly be entitled to rank as law at all. A natural law on the other hand may stll be held to be valid even if it is never or scarcely even observed. 7 Legal positivism will only work in a community where it is widely accepted. Hart suggested that the legal system is a Ã¢â¬ËclosedÃ¢â¬â¢ logical system where decisions may be deduced by logic. For natural lawyers- laws will be morally correct. For positivists- the moral aspect is a social standard for people to aspire to. Another major difference between the principle of natural law and the principle of legal positivism is that natural law is not constructed by human beings while legal p ositivism is constructed by humanbeings through the statedraws from lawmakers and the process of lawmaking. There are two aspects, therefore, that emphasise the contrast between positivism in its caricatured form and natural law theores. First,law is exclusively the premise of the legal caste(incluing legilsators) This deprives law of any spurious claims of intrinsic morality and ensures the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s right to his own conscience, while reserving the legal systemÃ¢â¬â¢s right to punish him for transgressing. Secondly, it allows for precise statements about the nature of valid law which approximate to the lawyersÃ¢â¬â¢ experience. 8 Natural law is unwritten while legal positivism consists of the written rules and regulations by the government- codes, acts. Another distinction is that natural law is Ã¢â¬Ëthe order of conviviality(literally, the order of living together)Ã¢â¬â¢9 Ã¢â¬â the conditions of conviviality are universal. Legal positivism on the other hand is specific to a particular area. Ã¢â¬ËWhile positivism states that the concept of law is simply what the legal system in a given society recognizes as law, naturalisation considers law to be an ideal, commonly shared by human societiesÃ¢â¬â¢10Natural law follows a test.If it fails the moral test, then it is not good law. Positivism doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t follow that test. Some laws may lack in morals but still be Ã¢â¬ËgoodÃ¢â¬â¢ law. Despite the distinctions between natural law and legal positivism, there is a necessary connection between the two principles. Natural law flows into legal 7 8 Dennis Lloyd The Idea of Law(1964)p. 97 Michael Doherty Jurispudence: The Philosophy Of Law(Third Edition)(2003)p. 155 9 http://users. ugent. e/frvandun/Texts [no date][accessed 4th November 2012] 10 Michael Doherty Jurispudence: The Philosophy Of Law(Third Edition)(2003)p. 155 UP:05/11/2012-03:15:35 WM:05/11/2012-03:15:38 M:IA120-3-FY A:12a1 R:1204531 C:78D1638A2748CDB50B5907EB2217613C84694D9B po sitivism indirectly because it is impossible to have a legal system without fidelity to the rule of law and formal justice. Ã¢â¬ËThe connection between law and critical morality is necessary in that it is not contingent. It applies to every law and every legal system.The proposed interpretation of every law in every legal system can easily be challenged on the ground that it is not morally defensible, whether the challenge succeeds or fails in a particular instanceÃ¢â¬â¢11Any positive law that conflicts with natural law is not really law at all. As a result of this, there is no moral or legal obligation to obey it. People will not follow a law that they think is morally repulsive. A rule is legally valid if thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a moral right to enforce it. If people do not have morals or reason, it will be factually hard to have a legal system.Radbruch said Ã¢â¬Ëa law could not be legally valid until it had passed the tests contained in the formal criteria of legal validity of the s ystem and did not contravene basic principles of moralityÃ¢â¬â¢12 Natural law and legal positivism are undoubtedly interwined and inter-related. Ã¢â¬ËThe values of fairness, equity, justice, honesty, humanity, dignity, prudence, abstention from violence and a host of other values that conduce to cooperation and coexistence play a prominent role in the law even when they are not incorporated in any formal source of law. 13 In conclusion,Ã¢â¬â¢in order to know what your legal rights are, you need to look at what laws your society has. In order to know what your moral rights are, you need to figure out what is the true morality. Ã¢â¬â¢ 14 Adaeze Aseme. 11 12 Users. ox. ac. uk/~all. s0079/positivism2. pdf [no date][accessed 4th November 2012] Michael Doherty Jurispudence: The Philosophy Of Law(Third Edition)(2003)p. 157 13 Ibid. P. 39 14 Michael Doherty Jurispudence: The Philosophy Of Law(Third Edition)(2004)p. 39 UP:05/11/2012-03:15:35 WM:05/11/2012-03:15:38 M:IA120-3-FY A:12a1 R:1204531 C:78D1638A2748CDB50B5907EB2217613C84694D9BBIBLIOGRAPHY Books Lloyd, Dennis, The Idea Of Law(1967) Raz, Joseph, The Authority Of Law: Essays on Law And Morality(1979) Doherty, Michael, Jurispudence: The Philosophy Of Law(Third Edition)(2003,2004) Internet Sources www. iep. utm. edu/legalpos/ [April 17 2001][accessed 4th November 2012] Plato. standford. edu/entries/legal-positivism/ [accessed 4th November 2012] http://users. ugent. be/frvandun/Texts [no date][accessed 4th November 2012] Users. ox. ac. uk/~all. s0079/positivism2. pdf [no date][accessed 4th November 2012]
Posted by Aurora Devries at 9:19 PM
Thursday, November 7, 2019
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
What to Pack When Coming Home From College The major breaks in college- like Thanksgiving and Spring Break- can be lifesavers for all kinds of reasons. Besides the break from classes and the festivities that happen, these breaks provide a great opportunity to head home and recharge. But just what should you pack when coming home from college? With so much going on before you leave, it can be easy to not pay attention to what youre going to bring home over the break. Spending a few minutes now, however, to double-check the items on this list can save you many hours of inconvenience later. Laundry While doing your laundry in college isnt logistically complicated, it takes a lot of time- and money. Doing your laundry at home, of course, is an easy way to save some time, cash, and overall inconvenience. Dont forget to grab the things that especially need a good washing at this point in the semester, like your sheets, towels, and blankets. Anything You Need to Do Your Homework Sure, most of your research can be done online, but if you forget your reader for Politics 101 or your notes for Organic Chemistry, you can be up the creek. Given that youre heading home over the break with the hope of getting some rest and relaxation, the last thing you need is to stress over how to get your homework done without the things you need for the assignment(s). Take a few minutes to think through what youll need to do- and what items youll need to finish those projects. Your Laptop/Computer Sometimes, the things that seem the simplest are the easiest to forget. Make sure to pack your laptop/computer as well as its power cord. If youre going through the trouble of schlepping your computer home, itd be a waste not to be able to use it after the battery dies. A Jump Drive You may have things on a school server or be sharing documents with other students for a group project. Consequently, make sure to grab any jump drives you are using. That rough draft of your Shakespeare paper may be awesome but not if you accidentally leave it behind during break. Your Cell Phone and Charger You likely have your cell phone on you 24/7. Which, of course, is great- until you accidentally leave it at school. As you leave, do a quick check to make sure you have your cell phone (and its charger) with you. That last thing you want to worry about is not having a cell phone during your break or wondering where you left it. Seasonal Clothes to Swap at Home When you headed to campus this semester, you likely brought seasonal clothes (e.g., warm winter stuff or cool summer stuff). But Thanksgiving and Spring Break can mark a major change in the weather. Pack an extra bag of things you dont need until you go home again and then fill it with clothes back at home that you know youll need for the rest of the semester. A Nice Outfit If Youre Doing Interviews If your to-do list over the break includes doing interviews for seasonal or summer work, remember to pack that nice business outfit so that you wont be left scrambling (or worse, borrowing something from your parents) on interview day. Even if you think youll just be dropping off applications, looking professional when you do so still matters. Lastly, remember to pack important accessories, like shoes, jewelry, socks, and a nice jacket, that complete your interview outfit.
Posted by Aurora Devries at 9:16 AM
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Communications - Essay Example They traded with each other; established bonds of marriage and friendships with each other; and built future plans with each other. Although tensions were often seen among these tribes, these were eventually resolved through their traditions. I also found out that the Europeans brought to the shores of North America devastating diseases which practically wiped out a large chunk of their population. I found out that even before the actual colonization of North American by the Europeans, the Native Americans were already negatively affected by the diseases which the Europeans brought to their people Ã¢â¬â diseases which they had not defence against. In my opinion, Native Americans and their history are often overlooked by the media, except for special programs such as this video because the media does not want to acknowledge the fact that our colonial and European ancestors caused much devastation to the Native Americans. To talk about and discuss the Native Americans and their plight is a startling reminded of the unfair deal which Native Americans have been exposed to since colonial presence in North America. And further acknowledging the current deplorable plight of the Native Americans in the media will also bring the attention to the issues of the Indians which have yet to be given sufficient attention by the media and the Americans in general. Based on what was discussed in this documentary, young whites who embrace rap and hip-hop culture are just making fun of and ripping off black culture, just like earlier generations did with Blackface. Blacks claim that the whites seem to be stealing everything from them, including their culture. The assimilation into the rap and hip-hop culture by the young whites does not seem to come with a deeper understanding of its foundations. The blacks believe that the young whites just simply mimic the culture; they do not
Posted by Aurora Devries at 1:54 AM