Sunday, January 26, 2020

E-business Literature Review

E-business Literature Review Recent advances in the technology have created a surge in â€Å"technology-based self service† (Dabhokar et al. 2003). Such developments are changing the way that service firms and consumers interact and are raising a host of research and practice issues relating to the delivery of e-service. Further, Information technology (IT) made a tremendous impact on the business world. Business processes and operations that used to take days or weeks can now be done in a matter of seconds with the help of IT. This makes individuals and customers to be better served than in the past (Rodgers et al. 2002). Different people have different understanding for the purpose as in order to have a common uniform understanding author will like to define the terminology of e-business, e-service and e-commerce, the following section will discuss about definition, distinction and the differences between these three in order to have a better understanding. E-BUSINESS E-business probably began with electronic data interchange in the 1960s (Zwass, 1996; Wigang, 1997). However, it was only in the 1990s, primarily via the internet, that e-business has emerged as a core feature of many organisations (Melao, 2009). E-business has become an inescapable fact of life, nearly as essential to commerce as the telephone (Waters, 2000). With the technological advancement e-business has a huge impact on day to day operation of the businesses. Furthermore, e-business expands the connectivity of the organization to include its suppliers, employees, and the business partners. E-business is the next wave in the technological revolution created by the Internet (Biggs, 2000). E-business is defined as ‘The use of electronic networks for business (usually with web technology’ by Deloitte and Touchà © Consulting Group further IBM defined e-business as the transformation of key business through the use of Internet technologies (Chaffey and Smith, 2008). According to Turban et al. (2006), E-business refers to a broader definition of e-commerce, not just the buying and selling of goods and services, but also servicing customers, collaborating with business partners, and conducting electronic transactions within an organisation. E-business provides a global platform where individuals and organizations interact, communicate, collaborate and obtain information. Further, Currie and Parikh, (2006) stated that e-business web based systems increasingly represent a competitive advantage for companies and have undergone great organizational changes. Businesses online provide an information-rich environment by which competitors can identify, match and impro ve product innovation (singh, 2002)B2C E-business is growing at an explosive rate. As a means of growing existing market share, entering new markets, forging alliances with business partners and taking the all important customer relationship to a new and unprecedented level, e-business is an unparalleled tool (Deise et al.2000).E-business is revolutionizing the way business is conducted. Similarly it does more than e-commerce as it interconnects the whole and extended organization thus allowing for improved communication among suppliers, employees and customers. In addition to this e-business allows for the extended organization to be connected which means that all the employees, customers or clients, suppliers, and other stakeholders, regardless of the geographic region are interconnected ( Rodgers et al. 2002) . It involves attracting and retaining the right customers and business partners and it includes digital communication, e-commerce, online research and it is used by every business discipline (Strauss and Frost, 2 001, p: 6). E-business allows service providers to interact with their suppliers and customers as this improved relationship causes and potentially could lead to loyalty and then results in increased profits and competitive advantage for the firm (Follit, 2000). E-COMMERCE The immense popularity of the internet in recent years has been fuelled largely by the prospect of performing business online. With the rapid global growth in electronic commerce, businesses are attempting to gain a competitive advantage by using e-commerce to interact with customers (Lee and Lin, 2005). E-commerce refers primarily to the buying and selling activities over the Internet, which includes transactions such as placing orders, making payments, and tracking delivery of orders on the Internet (Rodgers, 2002). The e-commerce is defined as buying and selling of product service or information through computer networks mainly the internet (Wen et al., 2001) and people immediately think of consumer retail purchases from companies such as Amazon (Chaffey et al, 2006). However, e-commerce refers to both financial and informational electronically mediated transactions between an organization and any third party it deals with (Chaffey, 2006). Further, Singh (2001) supported the defin ition by referring e-commerce to an online service offered to customer to support their shopping experience over the internet. E-commerce is exponentially increasing the availability of information, giving customers access to more knowledge, of better quality and faster than before. Technological advancement led an explosive development in electronic commerce, the causes of that are the internet end the World Wide Web (WWW), which are making electronic commerce much more accessible. Internet e-commerce includes electronic trading of physical goods and of intangibles such as information. This encompasses all the trading steps such as online marketing, ordering, payment and support for delivery (Trimmers, 2000.p.4). E-commerce is used everywhere in everyday life. Now a days it is utilized for everything from credit card authorization, travel reservation over a network, wire fund transfers across the world, point of sale (POS) transactions in retailing, electronic banking. It helps in generate demand for the products and services and improves order management, payment and other support functions (Awad, 2004.p.2). Similarly, e-commerce decreases the cost of creating, processing, distributing and retrieving paper based information. Further facilitates the benefits which include improved image, improved customer service, simplified processes, compressed cycle and delivery time, eliminating paper work and increased flexibility (Turban et al, 1999, pp.15). Moreover, e-commerce is not just about buying and selling as it is also about electronically communicating, collaborating and discovering information (Turban et al, 2004). It can involve the Internet, groupware programs, public e-mail networks (Adms,1994), technologies such as electronic data interchange (EDI) and electronic funds transfer (EFT) and more recently , services associated with mobile telephones and digital television (Voss, 1999). E –commerce has become very popular because of the benefits and convenience it brings along as it is no longer an alternative, it is an imperative (Wen et al, 2001).E-commerce is generally based on monetary transaction and e-services are the part of electronic commerce. E-SERVICE E-services are important in B2C e-commerce for managing customer relations and enhancing sales. Rapidly advancement of technology such as wireless, broadband, smart cards, data warehousing, data mining and agent technologies, are contribute toward the effective accessibility and servicing of the correctly targeted customers for business while providing more choices, options and ultimately power to customers in their transactions with business (Rust and Kannan, 2003). Further e-service provides a new business paradigm for the organizations operating in the electronic environment. Below figure show a paradigm shift from traditional e-commerce to e-service. SOURCE: Rust, R, T and Kannan, P, k., 2003 There are three primary reasons for firms to develop e-services. Firstly, Shapiro and Varian (1999) argued that on margin, consumer acquisition and service costs are generally much lower in an online medium versus that in an offline medium. Secondly, e-service inexpensively and effectively delivers high-quality, timely and in-depth product information desired by consumers (Iqbal et al. 2003). E-services also provide consumers with benefits such as better price quality comparisons (Evans and Wurster, 1999) and customized search processes based on criteria of importance (Lynch and Ariely, 1999). Finally, the use of e-services enables firms to develop a deep understanding of consumer behaviour (Iqbal et al, 2003). The view of e-service is much broader than the concepts of IT services, web services or infrastructure service as it e-service includes all these services further it also encompasses the service product, service environment and service delivery that comprise any business model, whether it belongs to a goods manufacturer or a pure service provider ( Rust et al, 1996). The customer’s interaction or contact with the organization is through the information and communication technology (ICT) in e-service. This remote service encounter subsequently has developed into a self-service experience (Dabholkar, 2000; Sara, 2000). However, experience of self service and e-service are quite different. In self service operations, a customer has to go to the information and communication technology centre while, in e-service, a customer can conveniently receive the service through the internet at home or other places. In other words, self service is less flexible than e-service due to constrai nts of location (Surjadjaja et al., 2003). Similarly customer’s interaction or contact with the organization in the e-service is through the technology, such as web site. During an e-service encounter customer have to rely entirely on sight and sound while the traditional service experience can use all senses. In addition to this e-service unlike traditional service is not constrained by distance and opening hours, thus delivered delivers convenience. Linked with convenience is customer control. As customer can choose the channel through which they will acquire a product, the mode of delivery for the product, the extent of customization of the product and the extent to which they are involved in the design and delivery of the product (Rowley, 2006). Advancement of technology led the transformation of physical products to pure e-service components and has significant implications for building customer relationships. Below chart shows the e-commerce path to profitability as how the traditional path and e-service path flow increase profit of the firm. SOURCE: Rust, R, T and Kannan, P, k., 2003 Above chart shows traditional path services laid emphasis on automated service or self service operation, firms used to focus on increased efficiency and productivity of business and reduce the cost of the product or service in order to increase profit. On the other hand on e-service path firms are focus on enhanced service operations, provides greater conveniences and support services to customers. Further improved customer satisfaction and retention by providing best quality service for example grocery chains are looking to use loyalty cards and focus on one-to-one promotion and marketing efforts based on the information gathered using these cards allow the grocery chains to develop relationships with their customers. Moreover, they provide value to customers through focused information provision, reduced search time and increased convenience for the customers (Rust and Kannan, 2003). As in the electronic world the customer and the merchant do not meet face to face and the clients are more sensitive with increased options and solutions available to them online (Singh, 2002). Many companies are adopting Internet-based e-services for conducting business transactions and sharing business information with their customers and business partners (Torre and Moxon, 2001). E-service has been defined as web-based service or interactive service that is delivered on the internet (Reynolds, 2000). According to Rowley (2006) e-service is deeds, efforts or performances whose delivery is mediated by information technology that include the Web, information kiosks and mobile devices. Such e-service includes the service element of e-tailing, customer support and service and service delivery. Further, E-service is defined as the provision of service over electronic networks. This concept includes services provided by a typical service organization as well as the services provided by t he goods manufacturers where the quality of customer care plays an important role (Rust and Kannan, 2002). According to Ruyter et al. (2001, p. 186), â€Å" an e-service is an interactive, content-centred and Internet-based customer service, driven by the customer and integrated with related organizational customer support processes and technologies with the goal of strengthening the customer-service provider relationship†. Further (Sahai and Machiraju, 2001) defined e-service as it is a service available via the internet that provides information, completes tasks or conducts transactions. It can be any electrically provided services offered directly or indirectly to customers, including direct as well as after sales services (Van Riel et al.,2001; Lagrosen, 2005). In addition to this e-service can deliver high quality, timely and extensive product information to consumer inexpensively and effectively. They can provide better price and quality comparisons (Shapiro and Varian, 1999). Furthermore, a company that can respond to the needs of the customer accommodate their requests prom ptly and support their buying decisions creates value and wins customer patronage and loyalty (Singh et al.2001). E-service operation include all the customer centric activities starting from pre-transaction, transaction and post transaction interactions through the internet in delivering products or services within service level agreement ( Surjadjaja et al., 2003). Clearly, although the aforementioned author agree that providing personalized and accurate customer information with better tracking, delivery and payment details is an online service in B2C e-commerce generally appreciated by customers. Similarly e-service functions incorporated on e-commerce sites that can quickly provide online shoppers with decision-making support win e-customers and get them to make a purchase (Singh, 2002). Furthermore, e-service is becoming increasingly important not only in determining the success of failure of electronic commerce (Yang et al., 2001), but also in providing consumers with superior experience with respect to the interactive flow of information (Santos, 2003). E-service can be usefully conceptualised as an interactive information service. Such as information provided by or collected from and about the customers can be gathered and analysed by the e-service provider and used as the basis for the customization of the service that organization offe rs to the customers (Rowley, 2006). Examples of e-services are computer-related services such as personal, cultural, recreational, communication and financial services. E-service concept is not simply a combination of words electric and service. As in true e-service operation part or all the interaction between the service provider and the customer is conducted through the Internet. Thus an automatic teller machine (ATM) transaction is an example of a simple electronic plus service experience, while buying a ticket on the Net is an example of e-service experience (Surjadjaja et al., 2003). E-service may be considered to be relatively new channel of service provision as well as new way of conducting business; research on e-service is still developing (Hung and Wong, 2009). E-Service as self-service There is an important conceptual relationship is that between e-service and self-service. As most authors have described the e-service experience as a self service experience (Dabholkar, 2000; Meuter et al., 2000; Zhu et al., 2002) although Surjadaja et al, (2003) differentiate between e-service and self service. Further they argue that in self-service operation customer has to go to the technology such as ATM to receive a service, while in e-service customer can receive the service through the Internet at home or in other places. Self-service technologies are often used to enhance the overall service experience delivered to the customer by focussing human service agent intervention at the point at which intervention can make the most impact. As e-service firstly, reduce marginal consumer acquisition and service cost, due to the reduction in human intervention and ease of e-service scalability (Binter et al., 2002; Iqbal et al., 2003). Secondly, e-services deliver consumers high quality, anytime and in-depth product information, which reduce the consumer price sensitivity and finally e-services support the capture of information relating to the search, evaluation and purchasing activities of consumers (Iqbal et al., 2003). Having discussed the concept of e-business, e-commerce and e-services, it can be said that the above three has a significant influence in today’s any e-business activity. Further, in order to understand the relationship between these three terms; the following section will provide the brief discussion on relationship and similarities between each other. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN E-BUSINESS, E-CCOMMERCE and E-SERVICE E-business is a broad term used to express the conduct of business such as buying and selling, servicing customers and collaborating with partners through the internet (, cited in Chen, 2001), under which e-service and e-commerce can be established as its two underlying dimensions (Surjadjaja et al., 2003). The scope of e-business is much broader than that of e-commerce. Extensive e-business embraces physical products and the distribution of the goods as an integral part of the overall transaction process (Greenstein and Feinman, 2000). Similarly, e-commerce mainly focus on the buying and selling of physical goods or products that results in monetary exchange whereas e-service refers to delivery of services through the internet either paid or free (Voss, 1999), For example, in the case of free e-mail subscription s and free online newspapers.These examples are actually part of e-business called e-service (Amor, 2000). However, (Voss, 1999) made the distinction between e-co mmerce and e-service, as being two ends of a continuum, pure e-commerce is the basic buying and selling of products, where as , at the other end pure e-service is offering service either unconditionally or with a service contract. E-business and e-commerce are two separate concepts such as e-commerce uses the web to connect customers with firms whereas e-business includes the web as well as other means necessary to interconnect information systems and data streams, both internal and external further e-commerce requires human interaction for form filling during purchasing process however, e-business allows many processes to be fully automated thus improving the efficiency of business processes and removing the error of human interfaces (Chou et al, 2002). There are some similarities between the two. As e-business and e-commerce solutions include newly developed web technology into organizational and business processes. The use of web technology results in improved efficiency. Moreover, e-commerce is generally less complex than any e-business solution as firm must start with e-commerce initiatives before creating e-business tasks. Once a firm has successfully implemented its e-commerce functions, then it may beg in to work on e-business with the e-commerce infrastructure, with out e-commerce infrastructure first, it will be difficult for firms to integrate all the e-business functions. (Rodgers et al, 2002). Moreover if a firm decide to skip the e-commerce part and jump directly to e-business, the project or work would be much more costly and time consuming. Therefore, it is necessary for a firm to create an e-commerce capability before it pursues e-business solutions. E-SERVICE EXPERIENCE The previous section sought to explore the inherent or pervasive characteristics of e-business, e-commerce and e-service. The following section explores the aspect of e-service experience that defined the elements, scope and context of e-service experience. As the nature of the service experience is likely to vary depending upon the activities or task being finished through the e-service engagement. Further users may be expected to take on different roles and exhibit different competences. The extent of customer customization or co-production varies between applications; this variation could have a significant effect on how customers engage with and evaluate the service interaction (Barnes and Vidgen, 2000). In addition to this a related approach is to regard the service experience as consisting of a number of different partial performances or service components each of which can be evaluated separately by the web site visitors (Santos, 2003; Zeithaml et al; 2002). Using this approach, Bauer et al. (2005) identifies three service categories that are core services, additional services and problem solving services. Further, Chen and Chang (2003) identify three components in the online shopping experience that are interactivity (connection quality, web site design), transaction (value, convenience, assurance, entertainment and evaluation) and fulfilment (order processing, delivery, post sales service. The need to identify the scope and elements in the service experience is also acknowledged by Parasuraman et al. (2005) in their work in E-S-QUAL in which they distinguish between core service and recovery service. On the contrary a number of authors discuss the web service experience in terms of its elements, but different authors have different notions of web elements and some elements are important of factors identified elsewhere as dimensions in e-service quality models. For example, Constantinides (2004) finds that the web experience and specifically the significance of the web experience elements depend on the buying situation, type of the customer and client’s intentions in visiting a site. He identifies the following web experience elements that influence consumer behaviour such as functionally factors (usability, interactivity), psychological factors (trust) and content factors (aesthetics and marketing mix). Later Zhang and Prybutok (2005) develop an e-service model in which web site service quality is one variable; the others are individual differences, e-service convenience, risk, e-satisfaction and intention. On the basis of above statements it can be argued that the modelling and evaluation of e-service experience can undertaken at three different levels such as web site experience, online service experience and total multi-channel experience. As important contributing factor to the e-service experience is the ability of the organization to organize its supply and value chain to support the delivery of good quality goods and services (Rowley, 2006). Further, Voss (2003) reports on a study across retail banking, retailing, travel, utilities, content providers and computer hardware sectors that suggest that performance on responsiveness was substantially below customer expectation. Problem occurring in the e-service system can result in a failure of service (Zhang and Prybutok, 2005) and this may lead to the loss valuable opportunities to build loyalty (Watcher, 2002). In order to have a holistic e-service experience one has to examine specific areas of service marketing, service design and service delivery. In the following section author will discuss these specific areas. SERVICE MARKETING Services marketing deals with expected quality of services and involves matching market needs with a firm’s resources (Meredith, 1992). Since services cannot be produced without interaction with the customer, marketing activities need to manage the timing of demand rather than just build demand. As most services are experiences delivered by human performers, anything that a service organization does in relation to the customer becomes a marketing activity, for example bank teller’s smile, the waitperson’s courtesy or the physician’s bed side manner are all marketing activities (Fisk et al., 2000). Furthermore, marketing focuses on determining the marketing mix of product and service features such as price, brand image and accessibility of service (Palmer, 2001). Service marketing concepts and strategies have developed in response to the tremendous growth of services industries, resulting in their increased importance to the world economy (Wilson et al., 20 08). Service marketing evolves on the front-end operation while service design focus on the back- end support of service operation (Surjadjaja et al, 2004). SERVICE DESIGN Service design refers to the design of facilities, servers, equipment and other resources needed to produce services which includes a blue print of the service system, specifications, procedures and policies (Meredith, 1992). The design of services with a view to creating memorable and satisfying customer experiences is not new. However, the deliberate design and execution of service experiences as a distinctive management discipline with its own principles, tools, and techniques can be said to be a new approach. In easy terms service design considers services as product that need to be systematically developed with a clear focus on the customer value (Zehrer, 2009).Service design considers services as products that need to be systematically developed with a clear focus on customer value. In more precise terms Gummesson (1994) described service design as service design covers the hand-on activities to describe and detail a service, the service system and the service delivery process. Further, A major task of service design is to create, in line with service strategy, material evidence of a sensually perceivable service reality for the customer, which materializes the non-material message sent by the service provider (Zehrer, 2009). However inadequate service design will cause continuous problems with service delivery. As to avoid such inadequacy, service design must be consistent with the service orientation and overall strategic orientation of the organization (Johnston, 1999; Doyle and Broadbridge, 1999). Similarly, service-design should be consistent with transparent service strategies, however, Mager (2004) has noted that many firms lack of such a defined service strategy. If one element of the service design is inconsistent with the overall strategy and service orientation of the provider therefore it is unlikely to be successful in providing satisfaction to the customer (Zehrer, 2009). As Doyle and Broadbridge (1999) noted that the importance of design as a composite in the strategic mix is often undervalued or ignored, the holistic nature of design and its informed status can achieve a more coherent offer to the customer. In recent years, technology has plays an increasingly major role in service design to ensure memorable service experiences. Many service offerings have evolved to become multi-interface systems that create several opportunities for developing new offerings. However to take full advantage of these capabilities, the technology must be fully integrated into service design and management with an overarching customer orientation (Curran et al., 2003). As PatrÄ ±Ã‚ ´cio et al. (2008, p.319) observed that In designing modern service offerings firms have to define their service interface mix, the technologies that support front-stage customer interactions and backstage support processes, and the service clues necessary to enable a satisfying customer experience. SERVICE DELIVERY Service delivery is concerned with delivery of the core products and services to the customers (Slack et al, 2001), including digital products. In addition, for e-service experience the introduction of e-service delivery has been associated with an increase in the number of channels through which businesses interact with their customer. Further, in such a multi channel contexts it is important not only to understand how consumers experience and evaluate the e-service delivery, but also how the delivery contributes to the total service experience and its evaluation (Rowley, 2006). Moreover, Muller-Lankenau and Wehmeyer (2005) indicate that self-service and e-service is often part of a wider service delivery. There is growing number of traditional companies use the Internet to enhance, support or by-pass their traditional marketing and sales channels and adopting multi-channel strategies. Thus it will be important to consider e-service alongside other channels through which service can be delivered, which includes the ground that has attracted most attention, face- to- face but also extends to telephone, postal and other remote services (Rowley,2006). Having discussed the overview of service marketing, service design and service delivery in the following section author will look into specific factors that will influence each of them. These factors are discussed in more detail below. Trusted Service Trusted service can be defined as exact delivery of promised service. In e-business operations trusted service is considered to very important (Baker et al., 2006). Online trust concerns are especially challenging to the companies wanting to move to e-business (Luo, 2002). Lack of trust is one of the most often reasons for the consumers’ unwillingness to make online purchases as a result it hinders the formation of an online exchange relationship for many businesses and organization (Baker et al., 2006). Further, Gefen and Straub (2004) assert that trust is more important to e-commerce than traditional service since online environment offers limited opportunities to regulate rules and customs. For example, online transactions do not usually afford the same kind of tangible assurances that are present in traditional commerce. Since consumer are concerned about the level of security when surrendering personal or sensitive information online, Warrington and Caldwell (2000) sugges t that e-business find a way to offer customers cues to encourage trust in their company. As trusted service can be designed and implemented within the service delivery process. Service providers therefore seek to achieve exact delivery of promised service and thus achieve customer satisfaction. Responsiveness Responsiveness could refer to the speed of the company’s response to the customers (Zehrer, 2009). Sending timely response to e-mail requests or complaint and confirmations of orders has been recognized as an important factor when online customers evaluate a Web site (Long and McMellon, 2004; Zeithml, Parsuraman and Malhotra, 2002). To improve responsiveness a web based customer support interface requires special attention as to whether the interface is prompt, always available and provides information regarding the timeliness of service. Further many companies request customers to direct their queries to a particular person who has the best competence in answering that particular query. Electronic forms are designed to direct queries to the appropriate department.The responsiveness dimension can be defined as the willingness or readiness of customer support to provide timely service to the customer in a Web context (Park et al., 2007). Personalization Personalization involves individualized attention, personal thank you from online stores and the availability of a message area for customer questions or comments (yang, 2001). Further personalization is refer as customer perception of the degree to which an online store provides differentiated service to satisfy specific individual needs (Lee, 2005). Most companies are building personalized web pages. Such web pages provide all the products and service, along with the navigation buttons for ease of access t

Saturday, January 18, 2020

High School and School Counseling Interventions Essay

Instructions: 1. Using this template, complete your article critique and submit this document to Blackboard. 2. Summary must include all five criteria: a. Introduction and rationale for the research b. Major strengths/weaknesses in the article. c. Summary of research outcome. d. Two methods of applying this research to practice. e. Conclusion 3. To begin your summary on the next page of this template insert a page break. Use APA formatting. School Counseling Outcome: A Meta-Analytic Examination of Interventions. Introduction and rationale for the research In the fields of counseling, education, and psychology, there has been a strong emphasis placed on evidence-based practices to determine the effectiveness of school counseling interventions. In this article, two types of Meta-Analysis interventions were used during this study. Meta-Analysis 1 involved treatment-control comparisons and Meta-Analysis 2 involved pretest-posttest differences. The overall average weighted effect size for school counseling interventions was . 30. This study determined how effective moderator variables influenced effect size of, guidance curriculum, individual planning, responsive services, and system support. Analyses of moderator variables are designed to determine the effectiveness of school counseling program activities in this article. Major strengths/weaknesses in the article The overall school counseling interventions produced an average effect size of . 30 which is significant. However, in this article, the average effect size of Meta-Analysis 2 intervention was not significant, only . 07. Previously research has found that meta- analyses using pretest-posttest typically produces a higher effect size compared to the more traditional treatment-control group comparisons. It’s difficult to determine the non-significant mean effect size for pretest-posttest meta-analysis. Additional analyses in the pretest and posttest form will need to focus on specific interventions and additional information regarding the effectiveness of specific strategies in school counseling. One of the common criticism of meta-analytic approaches is that studies with weak methodological rigor may artificially inflate average effect sizes(M. W. Lipsey,2003). M. W. Lipsey (2003) also argued that methodological moderator variables that often are assumed to be independent are not necessarily independent and carefully conducted meta-analytic reviews should explore methodological relationship patterns. The effect size of . 30 was based on 117 experimental studies that involved 153 interventions, which is a significant increase from the six studies used by Sprinthall (1981). Many more studies were conducted with elementary school students; however, school counseling interventions included in this meta-analysis appeared to be slightly more effective with middle or junior high students followed by high school students. Thus, these studies show a significant effect on school counseling interventions for all levels of K-12 education. There are also some limitations when meta-analytic techniques are used. The validity of effect size largely depends on the quality of studies that were included in the review. Some major limitations in school counseling research could not be addressed statistically. Also there are few studies that address the issues of treatment integrity. Only a handful of studies used treatment manuals or well-developed curricula. It was difficult for researches to determine what was effective because researchers could not determine what interventions were implemented with students. Another limitation was the elimination of 111 studies that had insufficient data or missing information. Another limitation from this article concerns the dominance of non-standardized outcome assessments in school counseling research. Meta-analysis also lacked long-term follow-up data. The lack of longitudinal data allows for the measurement and analysis of only short-term effectiveness. Another issue with meta-analysis research is that interventions focused mostly on specific interventions rather than comprehensive school counseling programs. There has been very few research studies conducted on comprehensive school counseling programs. Summary of research outcome. There were 118 studies that used meta-analysis 1, involving treatment-control comparisons and 153 school interventions; however, two studies were considered one study because of the same simple. Out of the 117 studies, 81 were published in journals and 36 were theses or dissertations. This meta-analysis study had 16,296 participants and the sample ranged from 8 to 5, 618, with the average study involving 139. 28 participants. From these studies, 50. 4% were elementary school students, 17. 9% were middle or junior high school students, and 24. 8% were high school students, and 6% had a mixture of ages, and one study did not report the age of the student participants. There was an overall weighted effect size of 27% for students that received school counseling intervention compared to those students that did not receive school counseling intervention. The average effect size was significant. Also, there were a total of 33studies that used meta-analysis 2, involving pretest-posttest design; however, two effect sizes were eliminated from one study. Therefore, 31 studies that involved 51 school counseling interventions were used. The effect sizes calculated from these 31 studies involved 2,015 participants and the average study involving 62. 97 students and the sample ranged from 9 to 283. Out of the 31 studies, 17 were published in journals, 13 were theses or dissertations, and one study was an ERIC document. From these studies, 29% involved elementary school students, 12. 9% were middle or junior high school students, and 54. 8% were high school students, and 3. 2% had a mixture of ages and grade levels. There was only a . 07% weighted effect size on pretest and posttest meta-analysis which indicates the average effect size was not significant. Two methods of applying this research to practice Firstly, my goal as an aspiring school counselor is to implement a comprehensive school counseling program for all students. I would provide a variety of interventions and activities using the four components of the delivery system of a school counseling program, guidance curriculum, individual student planning, responsive services, and system support. I would then, conduct studies in my school, collecting data, and determine which services students and the school will benefit from the most. This will help me determine what type of programs and activities are most effective for our students and school. Secondly, I would consider taking additional research courses to prepare me to contribute to the knowledge base of school counseling, while conducting research projects related to school counseling. Simply, there needs to be more and better research in the area of school counseling. â€Å"Without additional empirical support, some schools may eliminate professional school counseling programs†(Erford, p 68). Conclusion. From this research on meta-analyses not all school counseling interventions were equally effective. Additional research is needed to examine the impact these studies had on students from diverse backgrounds. Although more research is often a recommendation after completing a meta-analysis (e. g. , Ehri et al. , 2001; Swanson, 1999; Whiston, Brecheisen,& Stephens, 2003; Xin, Grasso, Dipipi-Hoy, & Jitendra, 2005), we contend that lack of methodological rigor and dearth of studies make the calls for additional sound research in school counseling particularly important. Also, the issues of treatment integrity and increasingly use standardized outcome assessments will enhance future school counseling interventions. From this study, one would learn that additional research is needed, however, from this research; data shows that school counseling interventions have a positive effect size on student outcomes. Furthermore, there were significant effect sizes for interventions at the elementary, middle, and high school levels. School counselors’ were able to increase students’ ability to solve problems while decreasing discipline problems. However, the researchers were unable to identify specific programs or approaches that produce positive outcomes. Additional research is needed to address what interventions for school counseling works, with what students, and under what circumstances. References Erford, B. T. (2011). Transforming the school counseling profession (3rd Ed. ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. Whiston, Tai, Rahardja, and Eder. (Winter 2011 Volume 89). School Counseling Outcome: A Meta-Analytic Examination of Interventions. Journal of Counseling & Development , 37-55.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Leisure and Recreation Essay

Recreation is essential in everyone’s life; it is a special time set aside to do something exciting. There are many benefits which associate with recreation, expert’s advice that one takes time aside from one’s busy schedule to do something which benefits the body, soul and mind. Recreation is a wonderful time to breakaway from everyday routine like work and school. Leisure activities can help improve Family bond, Psychological and Physical needs. Leisure activity is a great way to spend time with one’s family. It is almost a norm in today’s society to have both parents work while kids are taking care of by babysitters or staying in an after school program. Often time when one goes to the park, one can’t help but notice that the children are at the park with either mom or dad, it is rare to find both parents there. Because some parents spend more time at work than with their children, it is important to for them to recreates together. There are many activities family can participate in such as swimming, walking, rafting, or a walk at the park. Leisure time not only improve parents – child relationship, it also improve marriage relationship because parents tend to bond more when one spend time together doing things one enjoy. Families that recreates together are often time more cohesive than their counterparts. One of the psychological benefits of recreation is self-esteem, when children feels good about themselves, one makes positive decision and are more confident this in return makes one more productive in society. Some recreational activities teach children the importance of trust, positive social interaction and the importance of Education. Good news for working parents is that many community programs offer children after school and summer programs for a cheaper price. Yoga is one recreation which is known to promote better health because of the improvement of flexibility, better posture and relaxation. Leisure activities provide people with the opportunity to release energy and emotion in other areas of ones life. Many people find it comforting to volunteer at a homeless shelter or hospital while others enjoy staying home to play crossword puzzle. Physical activity through recreation can be acquired through many things such as walking, running or swimming. For an outdoor type person, a great recreation idea might be a camping trip or rafting. A relaxing choice for many would be spending time by the pool. People who exercise regularly are known to be much happier than the ones who don’t. Physical activity is stimulating and enhances the learning process in children. It is utterly important to start physical leisure early on in a child’s life; it is likely that the child will continue with recreational activity through adulthood. Obesity in kids is contributed by lack of physical activity, it is important for parents to engage kids in activities such as walking, swimming or biking. Staying active can release stress, lower cholesterol and overall improve one’s health. The overall benefits of recreation can help one live longer. Recreation can be done outdoor and indoor, bear in mind that recreation should be something that one enjoys doing. Doctors often recommend leisure activity to patients to improve physical and psychological needs. It is important to keep a positive state of mind; Active living is something that connects the mind, body and soul.

Thursday, January 2, 2020

Essay on Justification Report Example - 1484 Words

| GUTD Growth Plan |August 21 | | |2011 | |Give Us This Day Inc. (GUTD) is a 501  © 3 organization dedicated to finding individuals facing |â€Å"It is our calling and passion to help | |adverse circumstances permanent employment and social assistance. |society’s forgotten.† | | | | Dear Dr. Smith: We are submitting herewith our†¦show more content†¦Meaningful employment is essential not only to an individual’s economic security but also their physical and mental health, personal well-being and sense of identity. Introduction Give Us This Day provides career placement assistance for individuals in the Durham area of North Carolina. Our programs are in direct response to the growing number of individuals that are unable to find employment due to reasons such as: criminal records, limited education, overcoming addiction and victims of abuse. Unemployment is an issue that we all pay for in the form of higher taxes and higher crime rates. For some unemployment is a choice; but for others it is a hurdle that they lack the resources to overcome. It is extremely difficult to narrow down a specific percentage pool for our target market because we service an immeasurable number. The goal of the organization is to identify individuals who are going to have a turbulent transition into the workforce and offer positive support to avoid the pitfalls that can derail their lives. Give Us This Day will serve as a liaison between the employer, community and our client. Our clients are referred to us though our partnerships with churches, via the net and other organizations. Each client goes through a personalized program that is worked out and agreed upon between themselves and the individual’s Career Coordinator. Problem Statement AsShow MoreRelatedIndividual Report (50%)806 Words   |  4 PagesIndividual Report (50%) You are required to prepare a report for management, recommending that the Company enter into a new overseas market (defined as a country or large region within it) and outline the main features of the marketing plan. The new market that you recommend is your choice but it must not be one where the Company is already present. The report should be 3000 words max and the hand in date is 13th March 2013 via Blackboard before 12 noon. Your recommendation needs to contain theRead MoreLaw Provisions for Journalists Facing Defamation Cases Essay1508 Words   |  7 Pageswith the protection of an individuals reputation. Should journalists face defamation cases there are defences available. Justification is one of these defences, to use this defence the journalist must prove that what they have written is substantially true. 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